Haiku is one of the most recognisable forms of Japanese poetry, which originated in the 17th century and gained worldwide fame for its simplicity, brevity and ability to capture moments of nature and human experience.
History of Haiku
The origins of haiku go back a long way, beginning with ancient Japanese forms of poetry such as tanka and renґa. Tanka, a form of Japanese verse poetry, consisted of 31 syllables divided into five lines in a pattern of 5-7-5-5-7-7-7-7. This form was popular with poets and emperors from the ninth to the sixteenth centuries.
In the late 16th century, however, new trends in poetry called for simpler and more natural forms of expression. This led to the creation of the poetry game renga, in which poets wrote poems in a particular order, creating a chain of different genres of poetry. One poet would write 5-7-5 (hokku), then the next would add 7-7 (tanka), and then the third would write another pair of 5-7-5, continuing the chain.
In time, hokku became a genre in its own right and was renamed haiku. An important role in the development of haiku was played by the skill of the Japanese poet Matsuo Basho (1644-1694), who gave this poetic genre a special significance.
Although haiku is a form of poetry with restrictions on the number of syllables and line structure, writing it requires a deep understanding and attention to detail. Here are the basic steps that define a haiku:
- Brevity: A haiku consists of only three lines and does not exceed 17 syllables. This makes the poem concise and precise.
- Naturalness: Haiku often focus on nature and simple everyday scenes. The emphasis is on natural phenomena and experiences.
- Images of the moment: A haiku captures a single moment, succinctly and accurately.
- Seasonality: In traditional haiku, there is a reference to the season or time of year, which helps to create context and atmosphere.
- Imagery and symbolism: Haiku often uses imagery and symbols to convey deep meaning and emotion.
- Subtextual meaning: Haiku does not always explicitly reveal its meaning, leaving some of the interpretation to the reader, allowing them to actively engage with the piece.
- Rhythm and pauses: Haiku is characterised by natural reading, rhythm and pauses that help to convey emotional content.
Examples of haiku poetry
Under the moon’s gaze,
Whispers of a hidden world,
Fireflies take flight.
Autumn’s last leaf,
Floats on a sighing zephyr,
Nature’s last embrace.
Scent of morning dew,
Cherry blossoms bloom anew,
Life’s fragile debut.
Snow-kissed mountain peaks,
Silent tales of ages past,
Keeping the secrets of time.
The meaning of haiku
Although haiku appears simple and compact, behind this brevity lies deep meaning. Each word or image in a haiku is charged with meaning and emotion. This style of poetry allows the viewer to see the beauty in the simple, to understand the depth in everyday moments, and to feel connected to nature.
Haiku is a form of self-expression that allows the poet to pay attention to the world around them and their inner feelings. Each haiku can be interpreted differently, depending on the reader’s experience and feelings.
Haiku in the modern world
Although haiku originated in Japan, its influence has spread throughout the world. Many writers, poets and art lovers are passionate about this art form and write haiku on a variety of subjects beyond the traditional themes of nature and the seasons.
Social media and the internet allow people from different countries to share their haiku, finding inspiration from each other and pushing the boundaries of this amazing form of poetry.
Haiku is a vivid expression of Japanese culture, capturing its simplicity and depth. Its history is closely linked to the development of Japanese poetry, and its influence extends far beyond Japan. Each haiku is a brief window into the world of inner experience and harmony with nature, allowing us to pause and feel the beauty and meaning in the moments of life.
Prepared by Mary Clair